By Drug International Ltd.
Weight: 250 mg
Unit Price: 0
Last Updated: 2019-09-01 15:34:07
This is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of reversible bronchoconstriction associated with bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema, chronic bronchitis and related bronchospastic disorders.
Theophylline is a bronchodilator, structurally classified as a Methylxanthine. Theophylline has two distinct actions in the airways of patients with reversible obstruction; smooth muscle relaxation and suppression of the response of the airways to stimuli. Theophylline also increases the force of contraction of diaphragmatic muscles. The half-life of Theophylline is influenced by a number of known variables. In adult nonsmokers with uncomplicated asthma the half-life ranges from 3 to 9 hours
Theophylline & related drugs
Dosages are adjusted to maintain serum theophylline concentrations that provide optimal relief of symptoms with minimal side effects. Most of the controlled release preparations may be administered every 12 hours in adults while administration every 8 hours may be necessary in some children with markedly rapid hepatic metabolism of theophylline. The recommended dosages for achieving serum theophylline concentrations within the accepted therapeutic range is as follow:
The following side effects have been observed:
Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain and diarrhoea.
Central nervous system: Headache, irritability, restlessness, insomnia, muscles twitching.
Cardiovascular: Palpitation, tachycardia, hypotension. circulatory failure.
Respiratory: Tachypnoea.Renal: Potentiation of diuresis.
Others: Alopecia, hyperglycemia, rash etc.
Careful consideration is needed for various interacting drugs and physiologic conditions that can alter Theophylline clearance. Dosage adjustment is required prior to initiation of Theophylline therapy, prior to increases in Theophylline dose, and during follow up. The dose of Theophylline selected for initiation of therapy should be low and, if tolerated, increased slowly over a period of time.
Allopurinol, cimetidine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, oral contraceptives and propranolol increase serum theophylline levels. Phenytoin, methotrexate and rifampicin lead to decreased serum theophylline levels
Pregnancy: It is not known whether Theophylline can cause foetal harm when administered to pregnant woman.Xanthines should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Nursing mother: Theophylline is excreted into breast milk and may cause irritability or other signs of mild toxicity in nursing human infants. Serious adverse effects in the infant are unlikely unless the mother has toxic serum Theophylline concentrations.
Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal irritation, cramps, convulsions, tachycardia & hypotension. The stomach contents should be emptied & supportive measures employed to maintain circulation, respiration & fluid & electrolyte balance. Electrocardiographic monitoring should be carried out & in severe poisoning charcoal haemoperfusion should be used.
Hypersensitivity to xanthine derivatives. It is also contraindicated in patients with active peptic ulcer disease and in individuals with underlying seizure disorders (unless receiving appropriate anti-convulsing medication).
Theophylline should not be administered concurrently with other xanthine. Use with caution in patients with hypoxemia, hypertension, or those with history of peptic ulcer. Do not attempt to maintain any dose that is not tolerated.
Store in a cool and dry place, protect from light and moisture. Keep out of the reach of children