|Therapeutic Class:||Miscellaneous Antibiotics|
|Manufacturer:||Nipa Pharmaceuticals Ltd.|
|Last Updated:||2020-11-22 18:15:00|
Antrin Tablet contains Trimethoprim. Antrin uses:
For the treatment of initial episodes of uncomplicated urinary tract infections due to susceptible strains of the following organisms: Escherichiacoli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter species and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, including S. saprophyticus.
Cultures and susceptibility tests should be performed to determine the susceptibility of the bacteria to trimethoprim. Therapy may be initiated prior to obtaining the results of these tests.
Antrin Tablet contains Trimethoprim 100 mg. Antrin doses:
The usual oral adult dosage is 100 mg of trimethoprim every 12 hours or 200 mg trimethoprim every 24 hours, each for 10 days.
The use of trimethoprim in patients with a creatinine clearance of less than 15 ml/min is not recommended.
For patients with a creatinine clearance of 15 to 30 ml/min, the dose should be 50 mg every 12 hours
Pruritus, rash, urticaria, mild GI disturbance (e.g. nausea, vomiting, glossitis, sore mouth); disturbance of liver enzymes, photosensitivity, angioedema, myalgia, headache; hyperkalaemia, hyponatraemia; agranulocytosis. Rarely, fever, cholestatic jaundice, exfoliative dermatitis, anaphylaxis, aseptic meningitis, megaloblastic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, neutropenia, methaemoglobinaemia.
Trimethoprim, a diaminopyrimidine, is a reversible inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase. It inhibits the conversion of bacterial dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid necessary for the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. It is either bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal, acting on the same metabolic pathway as sulfonamides.
Patient with actual or potential folate deficiency (e.g. malnourished, chronic anticonvulsant therapy, elderly). Hepatic and renal impairment. Childn (esp those with fragile X chromosome associated with mental retardation). Pregnancy and lactation.
May increase concentration of dapsone. Increased elimination and shortened elimination half-life with rifampicin. Increases concentration of phenytoin, digoxin, procainamide, rosiglitazone, repaglinide, zidovudine, zalcitabine, lamivudine. Increased risk of nephrotoxicity with ciclosporin. Potentiates anticoagulant effect of warfarin. May cause hyponatraemia with diuretics. May cause megaloblastic anaemia with other folate inhibitors (e.g. pyrimethamine, methotrexate). May increase potential for bone marrow aplasia with bone barrow depressants. Increased risk of hyperkalaemia with ACE inhibitors.
Pregnancy Category C. Trimethoprim has been shown to be teratogenic in the rat when given in doses 40 times the human dose. In some rabbit studies, the overall increase in fetal loss (dead and resorbed and malformed conceptuses) was associated with doses six times the human therapeutic dose.
Nursing Mothers: Trimethoprim is excreted in human milk. Because trimethoprim may interfere with folic acid metabolism, caution should be exercised when trimethoprim is administered to a nursing woman.
Hypersensitivity. Blood dyscrasias (e.g. megaloblastic anaemia).
Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 months have not been established. The effectiveness of Trimethoprim as a single agent has not been established in pediatric patients under 12 years of age.
Geriatric Use: Clinical studies of Trimethoprim tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Case reports of hyperkalemia in elderly patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole have been published. Trimethoprim is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor potassium concentrations and to monitor renal function by calculating creatinine clearance.
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, mental depression, confusion, bone marrow depression (e.g. thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, megaloblastic anaemia).
Management: Symptomatic and supportive treatment. May employ gastric lavage and forced diuresis. Enhance elimination through urine acidification. May administer Ca folinate (5-15 mg daily) if bone marrow depression occurs.
Store between 15-25˚C. Protect from light
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