Acetohexamid

Acetohexamid, a brand name for a formulation containing essential Acetohexamide, is widely used for various health benefits. This guide provides comprehensive information on the uses, dosage, side effects, and mechanism of action of Acetohexamid, as well as insights into how long it takes to work. Understanding these aspects can help you make informed decisions about its use and effectiveness.

Acetohexamid

Acetohexamid is an oral sulfonylurea antidiabetic medication used in the treatment of type II diabetes. It is a member of the sulfonylurea class drugs. It was introduced in 1957 and is one of the oldest members of the sulfonylureas.

Uses For

Acetohexamid is used to treat type II diabetes when other therapies or lifestyle changes alone do not adequately reduce glucose levels. It is used to help the body maintain its blood sugar control. Acetohexamid may also be used together with insulin to reduce blood glucose levels.

Mechanism Of Action

Acetohexamid works by stimulating pancreatic β cells to release more insulin in response to rising blood glucose levels. It acts on the number and activity of the insulin-secreting cells in the body to increase their ability to produce insulin. This helps to reduce the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Acetohexamid does not increase the number of cells, but helps to modify the activity of the insulin-secreting cells.

How Long Does It Take To Work?

Acetohexamid usually starts to work within 24 hours, however, it may take 1 to 2 weeks before full effect is reached. Your blood glucose levels will need to be monitored closely to ensure that the drug is working as it should. Acetohexamid needs to be taken on a regular basis in order to maintain blood glucose control.

Absorption

Acetohexamid is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with peak plasma concentrations from 1-2 hours after administration. It is not bound to plasma proteins.

Route Of Elimination

Acetohexamid is eliminated primarily by metabolism in the liver and is excreted in the urine. Its half-life is between 1 and 3 hours.

Dosage

The usual initial dose of acetohexamide is 600-1000 mg/day for adults, taken on rising in the morning after breakfast. The dose may be increased gradually to up to 2000 mg/day depending on blood glucose levels. It is recommended that the dose is titrated according to individual blood glucose response.

Administration

Acetohexamid is taken orally in the form of tablets with food. Avoid taking this drug on an empty stomach since it may cause stomach upset or nausea. Acetohexamid should not be taken at bedtime since it may cause drowsiness.

Side Effects

Side effects associated with acetohexamide include drowsiness, headache, stomach pain, heartburn, diarrhea, dizziness, and rash. Acetohexamid may also cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) which may present with symptoms such as headache, hunger, nausea, weakness, and confusion, especially after missed meals.

Toxicity

Little toxicity is reported with acetohexamide, although in overdoses with high doses of the drug, there may be the risk of hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and even coma.

Precautions

Patients taking acetohexamide should be monitored for any signs or symptoms of hypoglycemia or other adverse effects. People should be counseled to closely monitor their blood glucose levels and report any abnormalities to their doctor. Acetohexamid should not be stopped suddenly as this can lead to rebound hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).

Interactions

Acetohexamid may interact with certain medications and herbal products. Other drugs that can interact with acetohexamide include sulfonamides, salicylates, beta blockers, and diuretics. People should talk to their healthcare provider before taking any new medication.

Disease Interaction

Patients with hepatic (liver) impairment or kidney impairment should use acetohexamide cautiously. It is also not recommended for patients with an adrenal or pituitary gland disorder.

Drug Interactions

Different medications can interact with acetohexamide and alter its effects or render it ineffective. These drugs include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics, antacids, diuretics, estrogens, oral contraceptives, and probenecid. People should tell their doctor about all the medications they are taking in order to reduce the risk of drug-drug interactions.

Food Interactions

When taking acetohexamide, people should avoid eating or drinking alcoholic beverages. Alcohol consumption can increase the risk of side effects and reduce the effectiveness of the drug. It is also important to maintain a healthy diet when taking acetohexamide to prevent hypoglycemia.

Pregnancy Use

Acetohexamid should be avoided during pregnancy except when its potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. If pregnant women must take this drug, they should be monitored carefully throughout the pregnancy.

Lactation Use

It is not recommended that acetohexamide be used during lactation. If taking this medication, women should be monitored for any signs or symptoms of hypoglycemia in their baby.

Acute Overdose

In case of an acute overdose, people should seek immediate medical attention. Common symptoms of an acetohexamide overdose are dizziness, confusion, and drowsiness as well as activity disturbances and vomiting. Immediate treatment may involve inducing vomiting, gastric lavage, and blood sugar monitoring.

Contraindication

People who are hypersensitive to acetohexamide or other sulfonylureas should not take this drug. It is also contraindicated in patients who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or in people with an adrenal or pituitary gland disorder.

Dosage And Administration

The usual initial dose of acetohexamide is 600-1000 mg/day for adults, taken on rising in the morning after breakfast. The dose may be increased gradually to up to 2000 mg/day depending on blood glucose levels. It is recommended that the dose is titrated according to individual blood glucose response.

Storage Condition

Acetohexamid should be stored at room temperature in a dry, dark location. Keep away from children and pets.

Volume Of Distribution

The volume of distribution of acetohexamide is approximately 4 liters.

Half Life

The half life of acetohexamide is between 1 and 3 hours.

Clearance

The clearance of acetohexamide is approximately 6 mL/minute/kg.

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